Tuesday, April 28, 2009

HIS 104 Final - Modern China, Tibet, and everything else

This is the third and last time I'm going to tell you everything I've learned in my HIS 104 course. Today, at 1:30 P.M. is the final, and I need to get my study on.
Get ready to be wowed by modern Chinese history!
P.S. There are probably a LOT of spelling errors. I really don't care right now. I have freakin' finals to worry about.

  • Those really famous Terra-cotta statues are in Xi-An.
  • The way people in China became "noble" was taking a series of tests (the tests were comprised of Confucian thought and the liberal arts). Chinese (or "Han") who passed these tests were known as "Mandarins."
  • Confucius pushed the idea of harmony. To find harmony, everyone had to understand and accept their positions in the world--for example, a woman's first loyalty is to the emperor. Next comes the Mandarins, and then her husband, and then her sons.
  • The hairstyle in which you have a shaved forehead and a long braid down your back is called a "queue."
  • The British had a long shopping list when they got to China to trade. But China didn't really need anything the British had--and they put a lot of restrictions on the British ships that came to China to engage in trade. The British, of course (those British) didn't like those restrictions. So first, they sent Lord McCartney to China to ask for better trade stuff (and for their missionaries to be allowed into the interior of China), but he was rebuffed.
  • Kowtow = the act of bowing so low that your head hits the floor.
  • During the 1800s, Tibet was pretty much an independent country. When Mao took over, he felt that Tibet "needed" what the Chinese could bring it (and that Tibet was the rightful property of China).
  • Katak = the white scarf you give to the Dalai Llama. You know, when you meet him.
  • The Chinese took over Tibet in 1949.
  • Three things, according to Gus, affected China and made them do what they did: 1) Their dynasties wore out. The Qing were no longer really in control. 2) In about 1800, they started to have too many people to feed. 3) For the first time in Chinese history, their balance of trade with the outside world had shifted.
  • One Mandarin, Commissioner Lin, was sent to end the opium trade/consumption. He went down to the English ships and demanded they hand over the opium--so they did, and Lin had huge holes dug in the ground, where he dumped the opium in water and lye.
  • The Treaty of Nanjing was basically the British getting more "fair" trade. After this treaty went into effect, they had more places to trade, extraterritoriality (if a British person got in trouble in China, they weren't tried by the Chinese, they were sent back to Britain), set tariffs (5%), missionaries could work in Shanghai, and China had to pay for the Opium War(s), since "they started them."
  • Some guy named Hong kept trying to become a Mandarin by taking those exams, but he kept failing. Eventually, he went back home and went into a coma-thing, and when he woke up, he said that God had told him A) Jesus was his brother, and B) he should get rid of the Qing. So Hong started a sort of revolution--thousands of people joined--and they were referred to as the Taiping (thus, the Taiping Revolution). Eventually, the Taiping Revolution fell apart, but it's still considered the most important of the 19th century. It's estimated that 20 million people died (and the Qing survived).
  • There was this other group of people called the "self-strengtheners," and another called the "conservatives." Empress Cixi (the Empress who kept appointing really young boys as Emperor--so young that they couldn't really govern--and kept killing/imprisoning them) was a conservative--which meant she believed that China's way was THE way (a traditional sort of view).
  • Japan asked Korea for trading ports, etc. Korea said no, but the Japanese said "We're coming anyway." So Korea asked China for help--thus began the Sino-Japanese War.
  • The Japanese walloped China, and this was a wake-up call for the Chinese--that they were a lot less developed in comparison.
  • One of Empress Cixi's little emperors grew up and started making reforms (encouraging math and engineering, etc.), but Empress Cixi didn't like that. So she called him crazy, imprisoned him, and reversed all his reforms (the 100 Days Reform).
  • There was also this group called the Boxers, who took it upon themselves to try to expel all the foreigners in China. They killed a bunch of missionaries sort of on behalf of the Empress Dowager. Eventually, though, they fell apart, and the Empress Dowager admitted that stuff had to change (such as offering Western education, etc.).
  • The Empress later declared that, after her death, she should be succeeded by Pu-Yi (the last emperor of the Qing).
  • Between 1911 and 1912, something happened called the "revolution." The Qing government collapsed. A guy named Su Yat-sen was given credit for this. Sun Yat-sen ended up being the first kinda sorta kinda really president of the Republic of China.
  • On the 4th of May, 1919, university students protested, demanding a new mood in China--a unified China, getting rid of foot binding, writing in the vernacular...
  • This movement sparked the Chinese Communist movement (and the Chinese Communist Party).
  • Comintern = Communist International. An organization designed to help small communist parties to form in the rest of the world.
  • Sun Yat-sen's group, called the Gummingdong (eventually called the nationalists) were in a sort of alliance with the Chinese Communists. But after his death and Chiang Kai-Shek took over, they were the opposition to the Communist Party.
  • One day, Chiang Kai-Shek decided they should kill all the Communists and Communist sympathizers. So the day he finally makes a big, sort of successful move, the Communists flee to Yan'an. This was called the Long March. They lost about 80,000 men on it.
  • It was around this time that Mao became the leader of the CCP.
  • Kai-Shek wanted to go after the Communists, but his generals, etc. said go after the Japanese. Eventually, he actually had to team up with the Communists to fight against the Japanese.
  • In 1937, the Japanese basically began a war against China. They took Shanghai (Nanjing became the new capital). When the Japanese got to Nanjing, they committed what's now referred to as the "Rape of Nanjing." They killed tons of people, raped tons of women and children, and stole basically everything.
  • The Japanese ended up deciding that, after Nanjing, they really didn't have enough men to go farther into China, so they stopped.
  • Kai-Shek kept asking the U.S. for resources so they could help fight the Japanese (during WWII), and the U.S. gave him some. But he didn't use them--ppl think he was saving them for his fight against the Communists.
  • Not long after WWII ended, there was civil war in China between Kai-shek and the Communists.
  • In 1949, Kai-shek fled to Taiwan (and the U.S. then called Taiwan the "real" China).
  • Not long after Mao took over, the Korean war began (and Mao helped out North Korea).
  • During the first part of Mao's rule, he brought inflation under control and instigated massive land reforms (approximately 1 million landowners died).
  • "Let 100 flowers bloom" = a saying in Chinese. Mao used it to encourage people to speak up and provide criticism of his government. When they did, he got mad and called them counter-revolutionaries.
  • After the land reforms, Mao built communes. The communes worked well for a year, but after that, for weather reasons and because district chiefs (whatever they're called) lied about how much they were producing--and there was a great famine. LOTS of ppl died.
  • In 1959, Mao and top-dogs got together to try to figure out what to do.
  • Deng Xiaoping and a guy named Liu convinced Mao to be a "thinker" while they pretty much ruled the government.
  • Deng suggested people get material incentives. Mao didn't like that.
  • Liu was suspected of being a traitor person, and imprisoned. He died in prison.
  • In Russia/China, there was the Party, which made decisions, and then the government, which followed through with those decisions.
  • The big people in the Party were known as the Politburo.
  • Party membership was very limited. Less than 5% of Chinese were allowed in.
  • Mao said the main incentive for people should be a moral incentive.
  • Lin (not Commissioner Lin from before) was an important general in the Chinese military. He was the won that thought up Quotations from Chairman Mao--and made his soldiers read it all the time.
  • 1966-1976: The Great Proletariat Cultural Revolution.
  • After this, Mao pulled a "dirty trick." He told the students who'd participated in the GPCR to go out into villages to spread the word about Mao, etc. But the students weren't allowed to come back to the cities--sometimes ever.
  • After Mao's death, Jiang Jing wanted to take over with her compatriots (The Gang of Four), but she was arrested by Deng.
  • People blamed Mao's mistakes on the Gang of Four--not on Mao.
  • Mao had talked about having "appropriate technology" for China. This included "barefoot doctors"--people who got minimal medical education and then went out into the villages to help people with basic stuff.
  • Mao helped to raise the standard of living. After Mao came into power, the literacy rate rose.
  • Deng Xiaoping, after taking control (after Mao's death), did away with the communes and said things like "It's good to get rich."
  • He also established Special Economic Zones--where foreigners could come in and build factories.
  • He also instituted the 1-child policy.
  • It was also under Deng that the Three Gorges Dam Project was started.
  • Tienanmen Square incident: tons of students were mourning some pro-democracy + market guy, and these erupted into protests/a big mess. Lots of people died, and the Chinese government doesn't let people talk about it.
That's all. Wish me luck.

2 comments:

wmcisnowhere said...

Yup, that pretty much sums it up. Brilliant. (And good luck on your finals!)

David Lapakko said...

Whew. I bit more than I wanted to know. But then, I don't want to know too much!

Give the girl an "A."