Thursday, March 12, 2009

Modern Egyptian and Turkish history, double check

Like "Modern African History, check," this post is dedicated to my dutiful studies and passion for high marks on exams. Enjoy learning what I've learned in the History of the Modern Non-Western World since my last exam, and wish me luck on this one!
  • The Rosetta Stone is an artifact found by the French, and later taken by the British, that allowed hieroglyphics to finally be deciphered (as the stone used both hieroglyphics and Greek).
  • Sa'd Zaghloul was the leader of the WAFD Party during Egypt's nationalist movement (1920s) (WAFD organized a huge petition with people saying they wanted the British to leave Egypt). He was first exiled to Malta, but after weeks of deadly rioting, he was released--only to be rearrested. Later, however, he was released for good and became Egypt's Prime Minister for a short time before resigning.
  • Egypt was very much a nation before the British "let" them become a nation-state. Egyptians all spoke Arabic and they were mostly Muslim.
  • The event at Dinshawi: British occupying Egypt were shooting pigeons for sport and accidentally wounded an Egyptian woman. The townsfolk surrounded the British soldiers. One soldier died on his way back to camp, and so 52 Egyptians were charged; four were sentenced to death (certain sources tell me these deaths were made public). The event at Dinshawi spurred on the nationalist movement and public parties in Egypt.
  • Gus mentioned five things that happened during The Great War (World War I): 1) Egypt became independent of the Ottoman Empire after the British and the Ottomans joined different sides of the war. 2) The British completed a city-wide sewage system in Cairo. 3) The war itself was a great profit to Egyptians. 4) Woodrow Wilson insisted that after the war, there would be a self-determination of nations--that nations could claim/declare independence. 5) In 1917, the Czar fell. Lenin and his group (the Bolsheviks) took over. They were, of course, Marxist.
  • The British sent Lawrence (of Arabia) to meet with local Arab chiefs to encourage them to rise up against the Ottoman Empire. The British said they would help the Arabs become independent if they were successful. Well, they were successful, but the British decided the Arabs weren't ready to govern themselves and made them "mandates" (versus "colonies").
  • After WWI, the winners met at Versailles. At this meeting, the U.S. and Britain decided that Wilson's "self determination of nations" applied only to European nations--so Egypt couldn't declare independence.
  • Under Farouk (a very corrupt king of Egypt and Sudan), the Muslim Brotherhood developed. The Muslim Brotherhood, which basically thought that problems in Egypt stemmed from the people not being "good enough" Muslims, became a major political force. They played a role in the nationalist movement and has since plotted multiple assassinations, including Nasser.
  • The British eventually turned Palestine over to the United Nations, who then decided it should be split up (with part, of course, going to the Jewish).
  • In 1952, the Egyptians carried out a coup. The people that then took over were led by a man named Nasser, who ushered in a new period of industrialization, and Pan-Arabism (or, at least, he would have liked to). He is also credited with the Aswan Dam and the takeover (take-back, really), of the Suez Canal.
  • Nasser used the phrase "Arab Socialism" to refer to something between/a little of both Russian communism and Western capitalism.
  • Nasser didn't want rival parties in Egypt, so he made the WAFD and the Muslim Brotherhood illegal. For all purposes, Nasser became a dictator (but really, so did Nkrumah, and to some extent, Attaturk). Nasser ruled from the 1950s until 1970.
  • The Aswan Dam had benefits, such as being able to control flooding and drought, and created electricity for Egypt, but it also had negative consequences, such as the destruction of the fishing industry in north Egypt and the lack of water containing minerals reaching farmland.
  • Effendi: a sort of respected person.
  • Colonel Urabi led the Egyptian revolt against the khedive (a sort of Egyptian king) and European domination of Egypt in 1879.
  • Upon his death of a heart-attack, Nasser was succeeded by a man named Sadat. In 1981, Sadat was assassinated.
  • After WWI, the British/French didn't "care much about Arabia," and so a family called the Saudi took over (with the help of Wahhabis, a strict sect of Islam).
  • Before the Young Turks and Attaturk, Turkey's leader was both the political and religious leader.
  • The Young Turks were a group of revolutionaries in late 1800s and 1900s Turkey.
  • The "pillars" on mosques are really called "minarets."
  • Eventually, in Turkey, a man named Attaturk took over. He was a Young Turk. He wanted Turkey to be as important as a place as those in Europe.
  • Attaturk made Turkey a secular state. He moved the capital from Istanbul to Ankara. He changed the script of Turkey from Arabic to Latin. He banned Muslim clothing, built a lot of schools, and greatly increased literacy among Turks.
  • Attaturk was in power for 16 years.
  • Attaturk alienated a lot of people. After there was an attempt on his life, he decided that Turkey could have only one political party.
I also have to study a map of the studied area (that is, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Turkey), and Palace Walk, which is an excellent book about a traditional Muslim family in Egypt. Cross your fingers for me!

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